ESPRESSO is made when a small amount of nearly boiling water is forced under pressure through finely ground coffee beans. The result is a drink with a higher concentration of caffeine that has a crema foam on top. This shot of concentrated coffee is usually served in small espresso or demitasse cups.
THE ESPRESSO MACHINE
Though Angelo Moriondo, given credit for creating the first espresso machine, hand built his steam driven machine in 1884, it was not designed to serve individual servings. In 1901 Luigi Bezzera refined Moriondo's design and, finally, Desiderio Pavoni of the La Pavoni family, bought the patents in 1905 and began to produce espresso machines mechanically. For more details on the history of espresso and the espresso machine visit The Smithsonian online.